Health insurance can improve access to health care for the insured population and protect hemfromthe financial burden of diseases. For example, a study found that uninsured children in the US were less likely to have a regular source of primary health care, and they used medical and dental care less often. Studies from China and the US have revealed that immunisation of children was positively associated with coverage by health insurance schemes (Jia L, at all, 2014).
The growing momentum for quality and affordable health care for all has given rise to the recent global universal health coverage (UHC) movement. As part of Indonesia’s strategy to achieve the goal of UHC, considerable investments have been made to increase health access for the poor. This strategy is in line with WHO recommendations to improve equity by reducing out-of-pocket expenditures for poor households and allocatingmore resources to those in need. The result of Indonesia’s UHC initiative is the roll-out and implementation of various health insurance schemes targeted towards the poor and near-poor, including the Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat (Jamkesmas) [health insurance for the population] program (Mohamad I. Brooks, 2017)..
Program JKN adalah bentuk reformasi dibidang kesehatan yang bertujuan untuk mengatasi
permasalahan fragmentasi dan pembagian jaminan kesehatan. Permasalahan ini terjadi dalam skema Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat (Jamkesmas) dan Jaminan Kesehatan Daerah (Jamkesda) yang mengakibatkan biaya kesehatan dan mutu pelayanan yang tidak terkerdali. Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN) merupakan bagian dari Sistem Jaminan Sosial Nasional (SJSN) yang dilakukan melalui mekanisme asuransi kesehatan sosial yang bersifat wajib (mandatory) (Khariza, 2015).
Sementara itu menurut Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan No.71 Tahun 2013, yang dimaksud dengan Jaminan Kesehatan adalah jaminan berupa perlindungan kesehatan agar peserta memperoleh manfaat pemeliharaan kesehatan dan perlindungan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan dasar kesehatan yang diberikan kepada setiap orang yang telah membayar iuran atau iurannya dibayar oleh pemerintah.
The Askeskin program was designed to increase access and quality of health services for the poor through operational funds provided to puskesmas [community health center] in the form of capitation payments and a fee-for-service health insurance scheme reimbursed through a quasi-governmental agency. The Askeskin program provided block grants through this agency to target the poor through the distribution of Askeskin health insurance cards and payment of hospital
claims. In 2008, the Askeskin program was expanded to include the near-poor as part of the new Jamkesmas program. Jamkesmas beneficiaries were required to sign up for health insurance cards. Households in the lowest twowealth quintiles were eligible for Jamkesmas and targeting
was done through a mixture of geographic and proxy means testing. The benefits of Jamkesmas included free health services in community health centers and 3rd class wards (basic level) in government hospitals and designated private hospitals. Jamkesmas beneficiaries were entitled to
comprehensive maternity benefits, including antenatal care, institutional delivery, and postnatal care (Rokx C, at all, 2009).
Even though total health expenditures (THE) per capita increased from US$20 to US$107 between 2002 and 2012, Indonesia’s expenditure on health as measured by the percent of gross domestic product (GDP) on total health expenditure is low compared to the other countries in the
WHO South-East Asia Region (SEAR): 2.9% compared to regional average of 4.2% in 2012 (World Bank, 2015).
China’s public health insurance system covers the largest number of population in the world, however to be precise, the system itself is fragmented rather than integrated. At present, there are three major types of public insurance—the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI), and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI), covering 95% of the entire population in China. The three insurance is designed according to the permanent residence registration system (aka the “Hukou” system) and/or the person’s employment status. The Hukou System classifies people as rural or urban residents based on their places of birth, which is not easily transferable from rural to urban residence. For example, due to the Hukou System, rural people migrating and living in urban areas may still remain in their rural residence status. The three insurance targets different populations, and Hukou becomes the main barrier to shifting across these insurance plans (Jin Y, at all, 2016).
In Germany and Chile, substitutive private health insurance coexists with social health insurance schemes which cover the majority of their respective populations (Thomson S, at all, 2013). Although only a minority of the population in each country is covered by private health insurance, the choice between private and social insurance plays an important role in both countries’ health systems and crucially shapes the boundaries between the private and public health systems, and the regulation, financing and provision of each (Rothgang H., at all, 2005). One of the most discussed results of choice between private and social health insurance is risk segmentation (Thomson S, Mossialos E., 2006). In both countries, it has been argued that this phenomenon is a direct consequence of choice. The funds from those who are able to afford and choose private health insurance are pooled separately from mandatory social health insurance wage deductions, creating strong incentives for private insurers to select for those who can afford private health insurance (Sapelli C., 2004).
The growing momentum for quality and affordable health care for all has given rise to the recent global universal health coverage (UHC) movement. As part of Indonesia’s strategy to achieve the goal of UHC, considerable investments have been made to increase health access for the poor . This strategy is in line with WHO recommendations to improve equity by reducing out-of-pocket expenditures for poor households and allocating more resources to those in need (WHO. The world health report, 2010). The result of Indonesia’s UHC initiative is the roll-out and implementation of various health insurance schemes targeted towards the poor and near-poor, including the Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat (Jamkesmas) [health insurance for the population] program.
The 2012 Indonesian Demographic Health Survey (IDHS) included responses from 45,607 women of reproductive age (15–49 years old). Background characteristics for the complete IDHS 2012 dataset are presented in the Appendix. Among all Indonesian women of reproductive
age, close to two-thirds (63.0%) had no health insurance coverage. About one-fifth (19.1%) of all Indonesian women had Jamkesmas health insurance; a similar proportion (17.9%) had other forms of health insurance schemes (Mohamad I. Brooks, 2017).
The interest in Willingness To Pay (WTP) for health insurance arises in settings where on the one hand access to healthcare is mostly contingent on Out-Of-Pocket Spending (OOPS) by health seekers, and on the other hand health insurance schemes must know upfront how much
they could charge as premium, to ensure their financial sustainability. This is particularly relevant in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs); by one estimate, only 5–10% of population in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are covered by social healthcare schemes that are funded by the state, and in many middle-income countries the effective cost coverage of
mandatory health insurance schemes ranges from 20 to 60%, leaving even insured persons
exposed to considerable OOP (Nosratnejad, S., At All, 2016).
In 2012 the UN General Assembly, in the framework of the Resolution on ‘universal health coverage’, called upon Member States “to ensure that health financing systems evolve so as to avoid significant direct payments at the point of delivery and include a method for prepayment of financial contributions for health care and services as well as a mechanism to pool risks among the population in order to avoid catastrophic health-care expenditure and impoverishment of individuals as a result of seeking the care needed” (Soini EJ., 2012). Other factors may also affect WTP. For example, when the concept / value proposition of “insurance” is unclear, or when households consider their ability to avail health care as slim (e.g. because the service provider is too far away, or because of previous negative experiences), they may report a lower WTP (Spaan E., At All, 2012).
Strategies in this review are defined as measures used to expand health insurance coverage. These strategies canmainly be grouped into the following categories:
- Strategies adopted during design
Modifying the eligibility criteria: this strategy included legislation or regulations to make uninsured populations eligible for health insurance schemes. For example, in the US, in California’s poverty expansion programmes for Medicaid infants are eligible for Medicaid if their parents’ income is up to 200% of the FPL; children under 6 years old are eligible if it is up to 133%; for children 6 to 15 years up to 100%; and for children 15 years and older up to 83% of the FPL (Aizer A. 2002).
- Strategies added to programme implementation
Modifying enrolment: this refers to any methods of improving or simplifying the enrolment procedures, including programmes that help families with the paperwork and other aspects of the application; positioning eligibility workers in schools or health facilities; authorising more entities to interview applicants; and shared eligibility with other insurance or public
programmes. For example, the state government of Californiaworked with community-based organisations to provide application assistance to families who were potentially eligible for Healthy Families (California SCHIP) or Medicaid (Buchmueller, 2007).
Improving management and organisation of insurance schemes: this refers to strategies that aim to improve the capacity of insurers to manage the insurance schemes, including better
information systems and training staff for better and more effective outreach and management. For example, in order to enrol Latino children, many states in the US have supported staff development and training in cultural competency to include appropriate family members (Zambrana 2004).
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