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Educational Psychology

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Education is the famous word had been known by everybody. Education is the one of many ways to develop social ability. To create good society, education is really needed. Because of education the good society will be created. Many aspects were related with this one. Education was playing a big role in social development in this era.
Age of human being is different between each other. There for educational approach is needed to give the better way for teaching and learning. There are many levels of educational psychology. Many institute were applying same method for teaching, whereas, students mind set are different between each other. Therefore teacher and educator must know the psychology of the student. The educator who doesn’t know the student psychology will make many mistakes when educating the student. It was very important to know for the teacher.
Educational psychology has many contents that must be known by teacher. The perfect education will not be created if the educators did not know the psychology of the disciples. The role of psychology is very big, and it will influence all aspects of education. In consequence, this is the teacher obligation for knowing all aspects of education.
In this paper we are going to explore deeper about education, aspect of education, and the psychology. There are many aspects of education and the psychological of education that its role is very important to develop the education in this era. Dozens of accredited educational psychology programs exist in top schools across the country. The best programs offer master’s and doctoral degrees in education psychology, which will prepare you to work for a school district or research facility as a counselor, educator, or psychologist. The U.S. News and World Report ranks the top three educational psychology programs as University of Wisconsin, University of Michigan, and Stanford.

EDUCATION
First of all, we have to know what education is. Education is built from “educate” which is the act or experience that has formative effect on mind, character, or psychical ability on individual. Education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another. Education can also be defined as the process of becoming an educated person. An educated person refers to a person that has access to optimal states of mind regardless of the situation they are in. hat person is able to perceive accurately, think clearly and act effectively to achieve self-selected goals and aspirations.
PSYCHOLOGY
Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. Its immediate goal is to understand individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases. For many, the ultimate goal of psychology is to benefit society.[5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist, and can be classified as a social scientist, behavioural scientist, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behaviour, while also exploring the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie certain functions and behaviours. Psychologists explore such concepts as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behaviour, and interpersonal relationships. Some, especially depth psychologists, also consider the mind Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlation relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counselling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology incorporates research from the social sciences, natural sciences, and humanities, such as philosophy.
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Although the terms “educational psychology” and “school psychology” are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational achievement in the general population and in sub-populations such as gifted children and those with specific disabilities. Also Educational psychology involves the study of how people learn, including topics such as student outcomes, the instructional process, individual differences in learning, gifted learners and learning disabilities. The other definition is the study of the social, ethical, and cognitive development of students as they progress from children to adult learners. Educational psychologists develop and apply theories of teaching, learning, and human development to determine the most effective ways for educators to teach students.
In developing curriculum, educational psychologists look at topics such as instructional methods, individual differences in learning, and behavioural and cognitive theories of education. Educational psychologists research ideas like the multiple intelligence theory, appropriate learning goals, and what motivates students to learn. They then use this type of research to build better instructional curricula in an effort to improve the quality of education.

Mind level
According to Plato, human mind is divided in to 4 levels
1st is baby’s mind phase.
2nd is transition phase
3rd is adult phase
4th is old phase
Baby’s mind phase is the period of the baby which his mind can’t be used to think deeper. In this period the baby will learn with the voices, pictures and games. The baby inclined to play, play and play. It’s quite difficult to ask them for reading and studying. Moreover they won’t to study. So, to educate them is only by playing game which is educational game. This habit will be continued from the born until 7 years old.
Transition period, this is the period which the human can accept the command. And in this period, student mind is growing up. Many differences are being shown in this age. According to Plato this is the golden period to build the character. The good example from the parent will influence the character. And this period run about 8 up to 14 years old.
Adult period, the age that people can think better. In this age the people can differ between the right and the wrong. This is about 14 up to 21 years old. In this age, people can think better and deeper. This is the rip age of human being.
The last phase is old. This is the last of human mind progress. The final of human progress is the condition of the mind that will be getting worse because the nerve is not work properly anymore. This is about 22 until die.
in conclusion the teacher and the student have the relationship. Relationships between teachers and children have been a focus of educators’ concerns for decades, although this attention had taken different forms and had been expressed using a wide range of constructs and paradigms. over many years, diverse literatures attended to teachers and students’ expectations of one another, discipline and class management, teaching and learning as socially mediated, teachers’ own self- and efficacy-related feelings and beliefs, school belonging and caring, teacher-student interactions, and the more recent attention to teacher support as a source of resilience for children at risk (e.g., battistich, solomon, watson, & schaps, 1997; brophy & good, 1986; eccles & roeser, 1998). in many ways, these literatures provided the conceptual and scientific grounding for the present focus on child-teacher relationships, and in turn, a focus on relationships provides a mechanism for integrating these diverse literatures into a more common language and focus. in fact, one of the goals of this
chapter is to advance theory and research in these many areas by changing the unit of analysis and focus to relationships between teacher and student.
In this modern era there are many modern way related with educational psychology. Many way to develop educational psychology. And here we are the way. Modern educational psychology came into play in the 1960s with Jerome Bruner’s research into inductive reasoning and discovery learning, while David Ausubel disagreed. Asubel believed learning should occur deductively: that specific should be deduced from general examples.
Contemporary views of education psychology generally fall into three brackets. Cognitive psychologists view people as learners who actively initiate learning experiences and attempt to solve problems, while they reorganize prior knowledge to come to new conclusions. Behaviourists derive most of their influence from B.F. Skinner, whose work focuses on implementing positive and negative reinforcements to shape the behaviour of students. Skinner’s work is particularly applicable to classroom management strategies.Finally, constructivist teaching strategies emphasize knowledge as a social construct in which responsibility for learning is shared between the educator and the student. Instruction is student-centred, with a focus on applicable tasks and differentiated instruction.
The future of educational psychology
Schools rely on the research performed by educational psychologists to develop methods of effective teaching for particularly gifted and challenged students. In addition, students, teachers, and programs are evaluated based on educational research and findings. The United States is in the midst of massive education reform, which means educational psychologists will continue to have extensive responsibilities.
Demand for school psychologists and counsellors is also expected to increase faster than average, especially in rural areas, according to the U.S. Department of Labour. School counsellors are becoming more involved in outreach programs like suicide prevention and drug and alcohol abuse, and as such, the demand for qualified individuals is expected to grow.
The Tasks of Educational Psychology
Below are some common classroom problems, followed by some possible ways todeal with them. Read these problems and choose the solutions that make the most sense to you. This is not a test!
1. Irfan is a first-grader who likes to write simple stories but doesn’t yet know the rules for spelling. So he spells what he hears: school is school, home is hom, animal is animl, and mother is mutha. What should the teacher do when Irfan makes these mistakes?
a. Point out the mistakes, give the correct spelling, and have irfan practice spelling the words correctly.
b. Don’t correct the spelling mistakes. You want irfan to like writing and not worry about spelling at this point.
c. Point out the mistakes but don’t ask Desi to correct them.

2. Mr. West is a ninth-grade Spanish teacher. Several of his first-periodstudents come late and unprepared for class, and this delays the lesson for the rest of the class. Mr. West is considering a reward system for studentswho are seated and ready to work on time. For each day that every student comes prepared and on time, he will set aside 10 minutes on Friday for
high-interest activities. Should he use such a system?
a. No. Most of the class comes prepared. Giving a reward for this
behavior will diminish the students’ internal motivation to follow class
rules.
b. Yes. The reward will help the students who are unprepared and will have no harmful effect on the rest of the class.
c. Mr. West should use both a reward and a punishment system. Those who are unprepared should not only lose the reward but also experience logical consequences.
3. It is June and Ms. Washington is considering retaining some of her first graders who are not ready for second-grade reading and math. What advice should we give her?
a. Retain the students. Students who are retained generally master the skills they failed to learn in the previous grade.
b. Retain the students. Retained students do better than students who were passed on but should have been retained.
c. Don’t retain the students. Students who were passed on but shouldhave been retained learn more than their peers who were retained.
4. Cody frequently disrupts his seventh-grade art class. The teacher, Mr. Steinberg, is concerned because the other learners in Cody’s art group are unable to concentrate and get work done. Mr. Steinberg thinks that an effective consequence for disrupting class would be to remove Cody to a “time-out” area.
a. Time out is an effective consequence for reducing disruptive behaviour like Cody’s.
b. Time out is not effective for reducing disruptive behavior.
c. Time out is effective only when the purpose of the disruptive behaviour is to get attention.
You may be surprised that there is no single correct way to deal with any of the above situations. Each has been the focus of research, and each requires more information about the situation in order to establish the best decision for learners.
For example, correcting phonetic spelling mistakes has not been shown to help learners master the words they misspelled. On the other hand, allowing children to spell phonetically makes them more accurate spellers of unfamiliar spelling words

The Knowledge Base of Educational Psychology

We have organized this textbook into five units, each beginning with the phrase “What Teachers Need to Know About….” Each section reflects the wealth of knowledge educational psychologists have discovered about teaching and learning, prioritizes that knowledge, and presents it in a manner that is most relevant to the classroom. Since you will be using this knowledge base to make important decisions about your learners, you may well ask, “What confidence can I place on the information presented?” “How was it determined?” “How is it organized?” “Will it help me with specific and immediate problems or only with problems that have yet to occur?” The first two questions relate to the research techniques used by educational psychologists to assemble valid information. The last two questions pertain to the relevance to the classroom of theories of child development, teaching, and learning. Let’s begin by examining how new knowledge about teaching andlearning is acquired.
So, development of human ability toward language is related with human mind. But there are many factors to that influence educational psychology. It is not only about human mind, but the environment also can influence the psychology of human being. Therefore it was very important element for new education development.

References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educational_psychology
http://www.educationalpsychology.net/
Yunus Mahmud,2003(revisi), Tarbiyah wa ta’lim,. Darussalam press. Ponorogo jatim.
William m. renold, Gloria E. Miller. Hand Book of Psychology. Educational Psychology (volume 7) N/D John Wiley and sons Inc.
Garry D, Borich. Educational Psychology, a contemporary approach. (N/D) university of Texas at Austin.
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