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Name: Aprilia Ayu Setiyani

Nim: 20170430136

 

Questions:

  1. How is the Economy condition of Indonesia in last 5 years? Please explain by using data! (20)
  2. In this 4th Industry revolution era, how is the opportunity of Indonesia to become developed country? (20)
  3. Please explain how does poverty affect economic condition in Indonesia? Give examples! (20)
  4. Please give the poverty data of your province! And explain! (20)
  5. Please explain how does gender and household decision affect economic condition in Indonesia? Give examples! (20)

Answer:

  1.  After having experienced a decline in economic growth due to monetary policy in various countries and with the existence of geopolitical issues, the condition of the Indonesian economy began to experience growth. Significant developments began to grow again in 2017. From the data above, if you see in the past 5 years, the Indonesian economy has experienced a decline since 2013-2015. Then it began to increase from 2016 to 2017. Indonesia’s economic growth in 2017 was the highest number since 2014. As information, Indonesia’s economic growth in 2014 amounted to 5.01 percent, in 2015 amounted to 4.88 percent, and in 2016 amounted to 5.03 percent. ( https://ekonomi.kompas.com/read/2018/02/05/113820026/ekonomi-indonesia-2017-tumbuh-507-persen-tertinggi-sejak-tahun-2014 )
    The source of Indonesia’s economic growth in 2017 is the processing industry, which is 0.91 percent. In addition, the construction sector followed by 0.67 percent, trade 0.59 percent, and agriculture 0.49 percent. For 2018, economic growth is getting better. Indonesia’s economic growth in 2018, according to data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS) in the second quarter reached 5.27 percent. And this number experienced an increase from the number in the first quarter, which was 5.06 percent. And the second quarter of 2018 is also higher than the second quarter of 2017 which is only at 5.01 percent.
  2. In the era of the 4th industrial revolution, the Head of the Industrial Research and Development Agency (BPPI) of the Ministry of Industry Ngakan Timur Antara said that the strategic steps that need to be carried out include increasing the quality and intensity of research and development activities in various lines. Thus, it is expected to foster innovation in the development of the national manufacturing sector. Indonesia must be prepared to face the fourth industrial revolution. In the fourth industrial revolution, all machines are connected through the internet system or known as cyber.
  3. One of the problems that affect a country’s economic growth is the level of poverty. The phenomenon of poverty has been going on for a long time, although various efforts have been made to mitigate it. Especially for Indonesia, as a developing country, the problem of poverty is a very important and fundamental problem in its development efforts. According to BPS, the poverty rate in Indonesia is still very large even though economic growth has increased. The largest number of poor people occurred in 2006, namely 39.30 million Indonesians still live in the cycle of poverty. According to Sen in Syahyuti (2006), people become poor because they cannot do something, not because they do not have something. So the key to eradicating poverty according to him is “access”, namely access to educational, health and infrastructure institutions. A high poverty rate is one of the inhibiting factors for economic growth. The results of the calculation of hypothesis testing using the t-test of the poverty variable do not affect economic growth. This is indicated by the results of the t-test with a significance value of 0.6752 greater than α = 10% (0.6752> 0.1). This means that the level of poverty in Indonesia does not affect the rate of economic growth. The World Bank in 2007 used a size of US $ 2 -PPP (purchasing power parity) / capita/day, which is a measure of poverty adopted by many countries, including Indonesia. With World Bank standards, it turns out that empirically often “cannot or is not right” to explain the phenomenon of poverty. Especially, comparing poverty with welfare. Poverty measurement by World Bank standards is based on the size of income (financial measure), where the poverty limit is calculated from the amount of rupiah spent per capita a month to meet the minimum needs of food and not food. However, it is proven, not all poverty is synonymous with welfare, as well as high-income levels, not reflecting a high level of welfare. In measuring poverty in Indonesia, the Central Statistics Agency (BPS) uses expenditure as an indicator of well-being. The poverty line used is an absolute poverty line based on the concept of basic needs approach. Thus, residents with expenditures assume that poverty is like a circle that has no end so it will continue to rotate in the same circle. Referring to the concept of the Nurkse circle, poverty begins with backwardness and underdevelopment that are closely related to education. Then dealing with low productivity causes the state to be unable to manage its natural wealth optimally. So that the income of the people is also low, which leads to disability. This result is also not in accordance with the theory and previous research which became the theoretical basis in this study. Which according to Kuznet in Tambunan (2007), growth and poverty have a very strong correlation, because in the early stages the process of poverty development tends to increase and at the final stage of development the number of poor people gradually decreases. Furthermore, according to Lokhsin, El-laithy and Banerji (2010) reveal that poverty increases are a result of weak economic growth. In this study poverty is found mainly in uneducated people, working in the agricultural and construction sectors and seasonal workers. The welfare indicator used to measure poverty is the approach to household consumption. Therefore, poverty does not affect economic growth in Indonesia.
  4. ( https://riau.bps.go.id/pressrelease/2018/01/02/536/profil-kemiskinan-di-riau-september-2017.html ). The number of poor people (population below the poverty line) in Riau in September 2017 was 496.39 thousand people (7.41 percent). When compared with the poor population in September 2016 which amounted to 501.59 thousand people (7.67 percent), the poor population in Riau experienced a decline of 5.20 thousand people. The highest number of poverty in Riau occurred in September 2015 which reached 562.92 thousand people with a percentage of 8.82 percent. See from the graph, the condition of poverty in Riau is always unstable. The condition of high poverty in Riau, notes that population growth in the province continues to grow every year. So that it is not balanced with the number of jobs available.
  5. The economic development opens up many avenues for increasing gender equality in the long run. Many facts throughout the world can be displayed to support this statement. Even so, economic growth alone is not sufficient. There is also a need for institutions that provide equal rights and opportunities for women and men, and policy measures are needed to deal with entrenched inequalities. To improve economic welfare, gender equality in determining decisions, especially decisions in the household, is very influential. For example, the division of labor between husband and wife to fulfill their daily needs. Because now, not only husbands are allowed to work in the public sphere, but the role of wives to work in the public sphere is also permitted. Especially in big cities, we can see things like this.

 

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