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Bandiyono and Indrawardani (2010). Migrasi Penduduk Desa-Kota, Urbanisasi dan Dampaknya. Vol.V, No.1

Based on the overview of several socio-demographic publications, this paper examines the issue of rural-urban migration and the consequences of urbanization. Urbanization is a complex phenomenon which strongly determined of rural-urban migration. Migration no large metropolitan cities from rural areas and small town has put enormous pressure in place of destination and created many socio-economic and demographic problems. Metropolitan cities have become the concentration of urban poor which mostly holds the informal jobs and live in squatter areas.

The main ideas expressed are Population migration is a form of response to variations in the state of the environment in which they live. Therefore the issue of rural-urban mobility and urbanization is a population issue that is widely discussed because it is closely related to the process of urbanization. Village-town migration can be broadly distinguished between those who move permanently and those who are non-permanent. The impact of migration certainly depends on the number involved, the duration of migrant concentrations and the selectivity of migrants. Although the impact of migration is complex but because of the anticipated process of increasing rural-urban migration.

 

Mansur (2014), Problematika Urbanisasi. Al Munzir Vol. 7, No. 1

This author describes that urbanization is a serious phenomenon in urban and rural areas. How come, cities that are flooded with urbanites will experience an uncontrolled population surge, while villages that are left behind will experience scarcity of people and productive labor. The uneven distribution of population between villages and cities will lead to various social problems. This is among other things that encourage people to urbanize with the aim of getting a decent life. In addition, the attractiveness of the destination area also determines the community to urbanize. Urbanists who do not have skills except farming will find it difficult to find work in urban areas because employment in the city requires skills that are in accordance with their fields. Plus, there are fewer jobs so there will be intense competition in finding jobs. Urbanites who do not have skills can only work as unskilled laborers, domestic helpers, gardeners/gardeners, and other jobs that rely more on muscle than brain. While migrants who do not have jobs, generally only become homeless, unemployed, and immoral. As many of these problems will certainly have a negative influence on the city environment so that it adds to the problems that exist in the city.

The author’s research focuses on regions that are the destination of urbanization are usually large cities with a fairly high population density and have developed in various fields of life. The community determines the destination area not only comes from the thoughts and intentions of themselves but generally comes from strong external influences. These influences are usually in the form of invitations from surrounding people who have already urbanized, information that is in the mass media about the destination, personal dreams, pressed for economic needs, and so forth. The urbanizing community has several reasons seen from the driving and pulling factors. These factors can direct the community to get a decent life, but this can only be done if urbanites have the skills needed in the destination. Conversely, if the community migrates to the city without being equipped with adequate skills that can cause problems for the destination city, the most affected by urbanization is the city’s environment.

 

Harahap, Fitri Ramdhani (2013), Dampak Urbanisasi Bagi Perkembangan Kota di Indonesia. Jurnal Society, Vol. 1, No. 1

This author discusses the impact of urbanization posed by the rapidly developing city. Urbanization is the result of urban development and economic which ultimately affect the dynamics of the city, especially in contact with the city’s ability as an attraction for people to work and live. The impact of urban development is first, physical: land vs land up green, the distribution of urban facilities, transportation networks, patterns of movement to the city center, the development of land use, environmental issues, and slums. Second, socially; unemployment, poverty, and criminality.

The author’s research focuses on the problem of urbanization facing Indonesia today is the high population concentration growth. Even worse, this was not followed by a pace comparable to the development of industrialization. This problem eventually leads to a phenomenon that is excessive urbanization. This excessive urbanization has caused various problems in Indonesia. It not only caused problems in the destination city but also caused problems in the abandoned village. Problems that occur in cities include increasing poverty so that slums also increase, increasing urban crime and many other problems. In the village there will also be a problem, among which is the reduction of human resources because the population has gone to the city, the village has finally not experienced any real development. Urban conditions that are increasingly out of control due to excessive urbanization have created new problems such as increasing crime due to poverty, massive unemployment, increasing slum settlements, and so on. Therefore, urbanization will be seen as a determining factor as a city can develop both physically and socially. That way, the form or understanding of urbanization can be seen more clearly as well as the effects/effects it has on life in the city.

 

Tjiptoherijanto, Prijono. (1999). Urbanisasi dan Pengembangan Kota di Indonesia. Vol.2 (58-62)

Urbanization is not simply the phenomenon of a population problem but is also a political, social, cultural, and economic phenomenon. Study of urbanization patterns is important due to abundance reports which point out that rapid expansion of the population growth rate, living in big cities has increased enormously.

The author’s research focuses on this problem associated with exaggerated growth may create a primary city, that in its excessive process will have negative and disadvantage impacts for the development and the well-being of such a city. The omnipresent growth of slums, the underprivileged areas in the center and outskirts of a city has provided a robust evidence that the proper plans at the heart of this, is paramount importance to the city development with regard to its inhabitants.

 

Fazaalloh, Al Muizzuddin, (2017). Urbanisasi, Industrialisasi, Pendapatan, Dan Pendidikan Di Indonesia. Vol.1 (17-19)

In this article, the authors point out that urbanization in Indonesia is currently increasing. This increase is certainly caused by various economic and social factors. For this reason, it is important to conduct research related to the factors that influence urbanization in Indonesia. This research has the aim of estimating the influence of industrialization, income, and education on urbanization in Indonesia. Using longer data (1960-2016). Then the effect of income on urbanization results in two results, namely positive and negative. To control the flow of urbanization, the government needs to understand how the conditions of industrialization, income levels, and the level of education in Indonesia.

In this article, it is supported by several government policy recommendations that can be carried out by the government. First, considering the development of the agricultural sector is important. Second, the government needs to building rural areas by improving infrastructure and facilities and public services in the health and education sector, this will increase per capita income from the community so that high urbanization can be prevented. Third, the government needs to pay attention to public education by encouraging people to study to higher education so that the opportunity to get decent jobs can be achieved which will eventually drive the direction of urbanization that is not excessive.

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