LEARNING THEORY

21 March 2013

LEARNING THEORY

By
Retna Rumayanti
Class A (20110540018)
English Education Department
University Muhammadiyah of Yogyakarta
2012/2013

 

ABSTRACT

Theories of learning based on the learning principles generated than studies of educational psychologists. This theory is a principle to educators to understand about how students learn. In addition, the presence of a thorough knowledge of the theory is expected that educators can connect with the principles and laws of learning the rules and techniques that will be used.
There are three theories of learning the theory first behaviorist. This theory is divided into two classical behavior introduced by Pavlov and operant conditioning introduced by Skinner. The second is a cognitive theory, the theory was introduced by Ausubel. And the last is the humanistic or constructivism theory introduced by Roger.
Of the types described above will be learning theory in this paper, so that each student knows and understands each of these learning theories. And students can distinguish each theory of learning, which is the most effective of them to be used as a way of learning students according to the circumstances and capabilities.

LEARNING THEORY
In general, education is an effort made by the process of educating. The process in order to influence the students to be able to adjust to the environment that will cause a change in him. Changes in self-learners in the form of mentoring, teaching, and training. Everyone is entitled to an appropriate education. So, education is a basic requirement that cannot be separated from human life.
In the process of education, learning is a part and parcel. Learning is a process of behavior change and thought patterns experienced by a person. So learn to have some learning theories appropriate to be applied in the learning process so that the desired learning objectives can be achieved with the maximum.
The word theory is very broad, theory can be interpreted as a series of parts or variables, definitions and theorem of interconnected that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relationships between variables. Definition of theory according to experts:
Sihes quoting Stanovich (1992) has given a definition of the theory, that is:
“… Set of concepts are interrelated, which is used to describe a data and to predict the decision of studies will come “.
sihes quoting Cohen, R defines a theory as a set of universal statements that there is ties between each other. He contains definitions and statements that describe the relationship between the two cases considered true. It also contains passages that describe the rules for forming a new statement.
The theory according to Ratna Willis (1988:5) states that “theories imply some propositions sintatik integrated (i.e. a collection of propositions follow certain rules that can connect logically with one proposition to another proposition, and the data observed) and are used to predict and explain the observed events “.
While the theory of learning is part of a series about a learning process. Learning theories in educational psychology give focus to aspects of learning and the ideas and principles specific.
There are three theories of learning that is:

1. THEORI BEHAVIORISM

According to the flow behavior, the study is an effort to establish the desired behavior by providing the environment, so there is connection to the environment by learning behavior. Behaviorism is an approach that emphasizes the role of thinking in experience guarding behavior. According to experts behaviorism, important processes are guarding behavior is studied. Both, that is impulse that generates behavior and certain behavior is raised from the impulse is learned through interaction. The main idea was to determine the laws or principles of learning escort.
There are two types of possible conditioning:
a. Classical conditioning

The name of the classical Conditioning occurs as a series of experiments to train a dog to salivate to follow the sound of the bells through a procedure in carefully by Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov. According to Pavlov learning process consists of the formation of associations between stimuli and responses reflective.
Classical conditioning, where the behavior becomes a reflex response to stimulus as in the case of Pavlov’s Dogs. Pavlov was interested in studying reflexes, when he saw that the dogs drooled without the proper stimulus. Although no food was in sight, their saliva still dribbled. It turned out that the dogs were reacting to lab coats. Every time the dogs were served food, the person who served the food was wearing a lab coat. Therefore, the dogs reacted as if food was on its way whenever they saw a lab coat. In a series of experiments, Pavlov then tried to figure out how these phenomena were linked. For example, he struck a bell when the dogs were fed. If the bell was sounded in close association with their meal, the dogs learned to associate the sound of the bell with food. After a while, at the mere sound of the bell, they responded by drooling.

b. Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning that is behavior as a relationship between stimulus (S) and response (R). The theory of operant conditioning was developed by B.F. Skinner and is known as Radical Behaviorism. The word ‘operant’ refers to the way in which behavior ‘operates on the environment’. Briefly, a behavior may result either in reinforcement, which increases the likelihood of the behavior recurring, or punishment, which decreases the likelihood of the behavior recurring. It is important to note that, a punishment is not considered to be applicable if it does not result in the reduction of the behavior, and so the terms punishment and reinforcement are determined as a result of the actions. Behaviorists are particularly interested in measurable changes in behavior. In operant conditioning we learn to associate a response (our behavior) and its consequence and thus to repeat acts followed by good results and avoid acts followed by bad results.
The experiment Skinner. Skinner had a box, called a “skinner box”, the box is equipped with a key, tool buyers of food, food container, adjustable flame lamps and floor to electricity. A rat was put in the box, the mice will certainly try to find a way out, when he accidentally touched a button, and then the food will come out, if not he will eat meal schedule. Feeding schedule is also influenced by the behavior of rats in the box, gets food or even punished.
For example, teachers punishing students who do not do their homework by standing in front of the class, this will make students more diligent to do homework or even create emotional wounds, instilling hatred to the teacher who gave the penalty. Teachers should sensitize students about the purpose of homework, the teacher gives the students motivation to do homework and with affection can be parents of students during school.

2. THEORY KOGNITIVISM

David Ausubel found that learning occurs in humans through a process of meaningful tie event or something new to the concept of cognitive or arguments that already exist. Cognitive theory of learning according to Ausubel in comprehending the contrasting rote learning with learning.
Rote learning is the process of acquiring items separately with no specific function in building a structure. For example, some students who can pronounce the formula of the n an arithmetic sequence smoothly, but he did not understand the meaning of these symbols and cannot use it.
As another example, high school students to memorize formulas final value of compound interest, but was unable to resolve a matter of determining the ultimate value of compound interest. How to learn to imitate, as did high school students is an example of rote learning by Ausubel’s statement quoted Bell (1978:132) the following: “…, if the learner’s intention is to Memories it verbatim as a series of arbitrarily related word, both the learning process and the learning join us must necessarily be rote and meaningless. This rote learning has many drawbacks, from the examples above the odds a child will not be able to answer the question that is more difficult than that because they are not able to relate new knowledge and the knowledge they already owned. So that meaningful learning is very important.
Definition meaningful learning is a process associated with new information on relevant concepts contained in the cognitive structure of learners. Where the process of learning not just memorize the concepts or facts, but an activity that links the concepts to produce a thorough understanding of the concepts that will be studied well understood and not easily forgotten. For example, a student learning mathematic, he or she have understood about formula and how use the formula.
In a book titled “Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View” (1968) Ausubel says “the most important factor affecting student learning is what is already known by the student. Believe this and teach him so. “Ausubel statement is exactly the core of learning theory. Thus, meaningful learning to occur, new concepts or new information must be associated with concepts that already exist in the student’s cognitive structure. According to Ausubel three goodness of meaningful learning, that is: information learned significantly longer able to remember information learned significantly facilitates subsequent learning process for a similar subject matter and information learned significantly easier to learn things that are similar despite going to forget .

3. THEORY KONSTRUKTIVISM OR HUMANISTIC

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers belong to the key figure of humanism. The main objective of humanism can be described as the development of human self-actualization. In humanism, learning is a learner-centered process and personalized, and the educator’s role is as a facilitator.
Affective and cognitive needs is key, and its goal is to build a human being can actualize themselves in a cooperative and supportive environment. He also explained that the essence of every human being is unique, individual potential and internal impetus to develop and determine behavior. Because it in relation then every man is free and has a tendency to grow and achieve self-actualization. For example, the teacher only as a facilitator, mediator and friends who make a comfortable situation for students. And educate participants who actively accommodate new knowledge.
Constructivism explains why students do not learn deeply by listening to a teacher, or reading from a workbook. Learning sciences research is informative the deeper original basis of how knowledge structure works. To design effective environments, one needs a very good understanding of what children know when they come to the classroom.
Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner aggressively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts based upon present and past knowledge or experience. In other words, learning involves constructing one’s own knowledge from one’s own experiences. Constructivist learning, then, is a very personal attempt, whereby internalized concepts, rules, and universal principles may as a result be applied in a practical real-world context. Constructivism itself has many variations, such as Active learning, discovery learning, and knowledge building. Despite of the variety, constructivism promotes a student’s free exploration within a given framework or structure. The teacher acts as a facilitator who encourages students to discover principles for themselves and to construct knowledge by working to solve realistic problems. Aspects of constructivism can be found in self-directed learning, transformational learning, and experiential learning.

CONCLUSION
Learning theory is basic knowledge that should be owned by all educators and prospective educators to deliver effective and efficient learning to the learners. By mastering these learning theory, then the theory educators to make the selection that will be used and who will be in accordance with the conditions of the students.
There are three theories of learning that is behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivisms have different views. Behaviorism is an approach that emphasizes the role of thinking in experience guarding behavior. According to Ausubel Cognitive theory of learning in comprehending the contrasting rote learning with learning. Constructivism explains why students do not learn deeply by listening to a teacher, or reading from a workbook. In my opinion, every theory has advantages or disadvantages, although not I describe in this paper. Each student must have one of the theories of learning th
at suits their ability to produce optimal results.
REFERENCE

http://novira08.wordpress.com/2010/05/29/teori-humanistik-carl-rogers/
http://edukasi.kompasiana.com/2010/10/06/teori-konstruktivisme/
http://mbegedut.blogspot.com/2011/01/carl-r-rogers-seri-tokoh-psikologi.html
Psikologi Humanistik
http://id.shvoong.com/exact-sciences/1959737-teori-belajar-ausubel/
http://sayangi-dirimu.blogspot.com/2012/01/belajar-bermakna-ausubel.html
http://www.ayobukasaja.com/2012/05/teori-belajar-kognitif.html
Teori Kognitif
TEORI PEMBELAJARAN
http://thohir.sunan-ampel.ac.id/2012/04/19/operant-conditioning-b-f-skinner/ http://blog.tp.ac.id/teori-humanistik
http://www.nald.ca/library/research/nls/inpub/transfer/page01.htm

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