21 March 2013


English Education Department
University Muhammadiyah of Yogyakarta

Communication is a human way to interact. As humans are social beings need a way to communicate. There are two types of communication used in the learning process that is verbal and nonverbal communication. Verbal communication is communication using verbal symbols. verbal communication can be oral and written. While non verbal communication is communication conveyed without words. Non-verbal communication using signs for example using various parts of the body, such as facial expressions, gestures, movements of the fingers, hands arms, shoulders, hips swaying and shaking of heads.
This paper will discuss more in depth about non-verbal communication. As the understanding of non-verbal communication, example, the types of non-verbal communication and the benefits of studying non-verbal communication. The purpose of communication is to establish communication and invite others to understand what we deliver in achieving the goal without using words.

Humans are social creatures. In this interaction, humans need to communicate the message. Communication is an integral activity in the learning process. Sometimes the quality of the learning process depends on the presence or absence of effective communication existed during the learning process. Effective communication will be able to cause the flow of two-way communication.
There are two types of communication used in the learning process. That is verbal and nonverbal communication. Verbal communication in a language that came out of the said instrument humans. Nonverbal communication system with cues that use different parts of the body, such as facial expressions, gestures, movements of the fingers, hands arms, shoulders, and head shaking (Kartomiharjo, 1988:73). However, nonverbal communication tends to often overlooked. Deemed ineffective role. In fact, nonverbal communication can actually ‘turn on’ the atmosphere of the learning process.


A. Definition of Non Verbal Communication
Communication is a process of delivering information (messages, ideas, ideas) from one party to another. In general, communication is done verbally or verbally that can be understood by both parties. absence of verbal language that can be understood by both, communication can still be done using body movements, show the attitude, eg smiling, shook his head, shrugged his shoulders. This method is called nonverbal communication.

Some definition of communication according to the experts:
Onong Uchjana Effendy
Communication is the process of delivering a message by one person to another to inform, to change attitudes, opinions, or behavior, either verbal (direct) or indirectly (through the media).
Raymond Ross
Communication is the process of sorting, selecting, and sending symbols in such a way as to help the audience generate response / meaning of thinking similar to that intended by the communicator.
Bernard Barelson & Garry A. Steiner
Communication is the process of transmitting information, ideas, emotions, skills and so on by using symbols, words, pictures, graphic, numeric, and so on.
Colin Cherry
Communication is a process in which the parties mutually to use the information for a common goal and a communication link that ties posed by the successor generation of stimuli and rewards.
Definition of communication: According Forsdale (1981) an expert on education, especially science communication: He explained it in a sentence that “communication is the process by roomates a system is established, maintained and altered by means of shared signals that operate According to rules”.
Analysis: Communication is a method that is used daily in the message / stimulus are formed through a process that involves two or more people. With each other to have a role in making the message, edit the content and meaning, respond to messages / stimuli, as well as maintain it in public. With the goal of the “receiver” (communicant) can receive the signals or messages sent by a “source”.
William J. Seller
William J.Seller say that communication is the process by which the verbal and nonverbal symbols sent, received and given meaning.
Nonverbal term usually used to describe all the events of communication beyond spoken words and writing.
According to Drs. Agus M. Hardjana, M.Sc., Ed. states that: “non verbal communication is communication message which packaged in the form of non-verbal, without words.”
Meanwhile, according to Adya Atep Barata argued that: “non verbal communication is communication expressed through clothing and any other categories of objects , communication with the movement as the signal , and communication with action language.
B. Example of Non Verbal Communication
Examples of non verbal communication include be a smile, wink, or wave. All of these communicate something without the use of oral or written language. Even if you do not say a word, your silence can communicate in a non-verbal way.
Another example, when a boy is sad he may droop his head and walk slowly. Or, if a girl is happy, she might run and jump or stand up straight and put her hands in the air. People don’t have to say anything to show how they feel about things. The color of people’s skin may even show how they feel. For example, if people with light colored skin get embarrassed, their skin may turn red, or if they are worried, they might get pale. Body language can be voluntary (on purpose) or involuntary (a person can’t help it). An interesting fact is that blind children will smile when happy even though they have never seen a smile.

C. The Kind of Non Verbal Communication
1. Proxemics
People often refer to their need for “personal space,” which is also an important type of nonverbal communication. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms, situational factors, personality characteristics and level of familiarity. For example, the amount of personal space needed when having a casual conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four feet. On the other hand, the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of people is around 10 to 12 feet.

2. Body Movements (Kinesics)
Body movements include gestures, posture, head and hand movements or whole body movements. Body movements can be used to reinforce or emphasize what a person is saying and also offer information about the emotions and attitudes of a person. However, it is also possible for body movements to conflict with what is said. A skilled observer may be able to detect such discrepancies in behaviour and use them as a clue to what someone is really feeling. Research work has identified the different categories of body movement that are detailed below with each category describing the purpose they commonly serve:
Emblems: Gestures that serve the same function as a word are called emblems. For example, the signals that mean ‘OK’, ‘Come here!’, or the hand movement used when hitch-hiking. However, be aware that whilst some emblems are internationally recognized, others may need to be interpreted in their cultural context.
Illustrators: Gestures which accompany words to illustrate a verbal message are known as illustrators. For example, the common circular hand movement which accompanies the phrase ‘over and over again’, or nodding the head in a particular direction when saying ‘over there’.
Affect Displays: These are facial expressions or gestures which show the emotions we feel. These are often unintentional and can conflict with what is being said. Such expressions give strong clues as to the true emotional state of a person.
Regulators: Gestures used to give feedback when conversing are called regulators, for example head nods, short sounds such as ‘uh-huh’, ‘mm-mm’, and expressions of interest or boredom. Regulators allow the other person to adapt his or her speech to reflect the level of interest or agreement. Without receiving feedback, many people find it difficult to maintain a conversation.
Adaptors: Non-verbal behaviours which either satisfy some physical need such as scratching or adjusting uncomfortable glasses, or represent a psychological need such as biting fingernails when nervous. Although normally subconscious, adaptors are more likely to be restrained in public places than in the private world of individuals where they are less likely to be noticed. Adaptive behaviours often accompany feelings of anxiety or hostility.
3. Eye Contact
Eye contact is an important aspect of non-verbal behaviour. In interpersonal interaction, it serves three main purposes:
• To give and receive feedback: Looking at someone lets them know that the receiver is concentrating on the content of their speech. Not maintaining eye contact can indicate disinterest. Communication may not be a smooth process if a listener averts their eyes too frequently.
• To let a partner know when it is their ‘turn’ to speak: This is related to the above point. Eye contact is more likely to be continuous when someone is listening, rather than speaking. When a person has finished what they have to say, they will look directly at the other person and this gives a signal that the arena is open. If someone does not want to be interrupted, eye contact may be avoided.
• To communicate something about a relationship between people: When you dislike someone, you tend to avoid eye contact and pupil size is often reduced. On the other hand, the maintenance of positive eye contact signals interest or attraction in a partner.
4. Paralinguistics
Paralinguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection and pitch. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest.
5. Appearance
Our choice of color, clothing, hairstyles and other factors affecting appearance are also considered a means of nonverbal communication. Research on color psychology has demonstrated that different colors can evoke different moods. Appearance can also alter physiological reactions, judgments and interpretations. Just think of all the subtle judgments you quickly make about someone based on his or her appearance. These first impressions are important, which is why experts suggest that job seekers dress appropriately for interviews with potential employers.

6. Facial Expression
Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures, the facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger and fear are similar throughout the world.

D. The Benefit of Learning Non Verbal Communication for Learn language
The advantages of non-verbal communication are:
1) The student can communicate with someone who is hard of hearing of deaf.
2) The student can communicate at place where you are supposed to maintain silence.
3) The student can communicate something which you don’t want others to hear or listen to.
4) The student can communicate if you are far away from a person. The person can see but not hear you.
5) Non-verbal communication makes conversation short and brief.
6) The student can save on time and use it as a tool to communicate with people who don’t understand your language.


Communication is defined as a process of delivering a message / information among multiple people. Because communication involves a sender, a message / information channel and the recipient may also provide feedback to the sender to indicate that the message has been received. Communication is a very important in human life because humans are social creatures who need each other. In communicating a person must have the following basis; intentions, interests, views, sticky, involved. In the process of communication we must also remember that there are barriers that the sender, channel, receiver and feedback as well as the physical and psychological barriers.
The purpose of communication is to connect and invite others to understand what we deliver in achieving its objectives. Communication skills required in working with others. There are two types of communication, the verbal and non verbal, verbal communication includes words spoken or written, while the non-verbal communication includes body language.


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