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ENTREPRENEURSHIP

running businessman

                                                           ABSTRAC
In more recent times, the term entrepreneurship has been extended to include elements not related necessarily to business formation activity such as conceptualizations of entrepreneurship as a specific mindset (see also entrepreneurial mindset) resulting in entrepreneurial initiatives e.g. in the form of social entrepreneurship, political entrepreneurship, or knowledge entrepreneurship have emerged. It is true that entrepreneurship is a key driver of our economy in the word and entrepreneurship is also identical with characteristics is often raised by experts for one example is creative and innovation. Creative is the ability to develop new ideas and new ways of solving problems and thinking new thing and Innovation is the ability to applying creativity to solve problems and doing new thing. So, creativity is the ability to think of new something and different while invasion is the ability to do new something and different. Furthermore, the paper can try explain about what is entrepreneurship, the history about entrepreneur, some life in how entrepreneur, view Islam about the entrepreneurship, my ambition entrepreneurship in the next, why entrepreneur is important in our life, and the last about some example about the success of entrepreneur. The summary, values of entrepreneurship can be integrated as a fundamental learning that make the student be an academic entrepreneur that has a characteristic, that ready to face the life challenge that appear as a problem solver.

INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, many people consider, interpret and perceive that entrepreneurship is a people which identical with the entrepreneur. However, interpret is not appropriate, because of the attitude and the soul of entrepreneurship not only owned by a businessman and businesswoman. But, the entrepreneurship can be owned by people who were thinking creatively and an innovative act like among student, farmer, teacher, lecture and other employees.
According to Mr Dr.suryana.Msi (2003) the entrepreneurship is the ability to be creative and innovative which serve as the basis, instructions and resources to find opportunities for success. So, the essence of entrepreneurship is the ability to create new something and different through creative thinking and innovative action to creating opportunities. Many people are successful because they have ability to think of creative and innovative. The process usually starts by generating a new ideas and new thoughts to create new something and different.
On the other hand, the paper will be concentrate on discussion about the entrepreneurship like the history about entrepreneurship, the important of entrepreneurship for our live, how people to develop entrepreneurship, some example about entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship in the view of Islam, my entrepreneur ambition in next ten years, and the last is conclusion about the entrepreneurship. The purpose of the paper are in order to know what it is about entrepreneurship, how the history of entrepreneurs, why the entrepreneur is important for our life, to train us to write the paper, and for partial fulfillment for requirement of final score for Entrepreneur English Education Department University Muhammadiyah of Yogyakarta.
THE CONTENTS OF PAPER
A. The History about Entrepreneurship
The word ‘entrepreneur’ is a French word which describes a person who founds, organizes and manages one or multiple new businesses. The French infinitive ‘entreprendre’ translates as ‘to undertake’. Another way of looking at the word is to separate it into ‘entre’ meaning ‘between’ and ‘Pender’ meaning ‘to take’. Entrepreneur also sounds close to a Sanskrit word ‘anthaprerna’ which means self motivation.” was first defined by the Irish-French economist Richard Cantillon as the person who pays a certain price for a product to resell it at an uncertain price, thereby making decisions about obtaining and using the resources while consequently admitting the risk of enterprise. The term first appeared in the French Dictionary “Dictionnaire Universel de Commerce” of Jacques des Bruslons published in 1723.
B. The Definition about Entrepreneurship
According to Schumpeter (1934), define entrepreneurship as carrying out of new combinations of firm organization – new products, new services, new sources of raw material, and new methods of production, new markets, and new form of organization. Cole (1959) defines as purposeful activity to initiate and develop a profit-oriented business and McClelland (1961) entrepreneurship just the moderate risk taking. Stevenson, Roberts, and Grousbeck (1989) defined as the pursuit of opportunity without regard to resources currently controlled and in 1995, Hart, Stevenson and Dial were improve this definition to be entrepreneurship as the pursuit of opportunity without regard to resources currently controlled, but constrained by the founders’ previous choices and industry-related experiences.
According to Histrich and Peter (1998), entrepreneurship is the dynamic process of creating incremental wealth. The wealth is created by individuals who assume major risks in terms of equity, time, and career commitment or provide value for some product or service. It is the process of creating something new with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, assuming the accompanying financial, psychological, and social risks, and receiving the resulting rewards of monetary, personal satisfaction and independences.
In the 21st century, Kuratko and Hodgetts (2004) have define entrepreneurship is a dynamic process of vision, change, and creation. It requires an application of energy and passion towards the creation and implementation of new ideas and creative solutions. Essential ingredients include the willingness to take calculated risks in term of time, equity, or career; the ability to formulate an effective venture team; the creative skill to marshal needed resources; the fundamental skill of building a solid business plan; and finally, the vision to recognize opportunity where others see chaos, contradiction, and confusion. So, what conclusion can we draw from the definitions of entrepreneur above? Although each of these definitions views entrepreneurs from a slight different perspective, they all contain similar notions. If we examine the common elements from all definitions, we might find the following characteristics: Creativity and innovation, Resource gathering and the founding of an economic organization (wealth), the chance for gain (or increase) under risk and uncertainty.
C. Some Life In How Entrepreneurs
Some people don’t just live: they lead a life. They don’t sit around waiting for a lucky break. They create opportunities. They go after their dreams and bring them to life They develop a vision of the good life, devise a plan for how to attain it, go for it, and check their progress along the way. As with any great effort, their work is never done but ever-evolving and, often, inspiring to those around them. Life entrepreneurs are ordinary people who integrate their life, work, and purpose through distinctively entrepreneurial behavior—and, in so doing, create extraordinary lives of significance.
D. The Important Entrepreneur for Our Life
The entrepreneur is very important for our life because Entrepreneurship is a key driver of our economy. This is one of the most important to prosperity for all people is entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is an outlook on life. It is the ability to see opportunities in our environment and exploit them to create something new or make something better. Wealth and a high majority of jobs are created by small businesses started by entrepreneurially minded individuals, many of whom go on to create big businesses. People exposed to entrepreneurship frequently express that they have more opportunity to exercise creative freedoms, higher self esteem, and an overall greater sense of control over their own lives or They also bring new ideas and new ways of doing things, such as alternative fuels, and inventions that we all enjoy, for entertainment, for medical use, and hopefully for more efficiency. As a result, many experienced business people political leaders, economists, and educators believe that fostering a robust entrepreneurial culture will maximize individual and collective economic and social success on a local, national, and global scale. It is with this in mind that the National Standards for Entrepreneurship Education were developed: to prepare youth and adults to succeed in an entrepreneurial economy.
E. How People Develop Entrepreneurship
The method of people, who want to develop entrepreneurship, must have a characteristic that exist on employers. According to David McClelland the characteristics of entrepreneur are disciplined, confidence, open minded, self starter, competitive, creativity, determination, strong people skills, strong work ethic and the last is passion. But I think disciplined is number one must be having with entrepreneur because these individuals are focused on making their businesses work, and eliminate any hindrances or distractions to their goals. They have overarching strategies and outline the tactics to accomplish them. Successful entrepreneurs are disciplined enough to take steps every day toward the achievement of their objectives. And the second is creativity; one facet of creativity is being able to make connections between seemingly unrelated events or situations. Entrepreneurs often come up with solutions which are the synthesis of other items. They will repurpose products to market them to new industries. The third is a confidences, the entrepreneur does not ask questions about whether they can succeed or whether they are worthy of success. They are confident with the knowledge that they will make their businesses succeed. They exude that confidence in everything they do. The last is Passion is the most important trait of the successful entrepreneur. They genuinely love their work. They are willing to put in those extra hours to make the business succeed because there is a joy their business gives which goes beyond the money. The successful entrepreneur will always be reading and researching ways to make the business better.
F. Some Example of successful Entrepreneur
According to Mr Dr.suryana.Msi (2003) the entrepreneurship is the ability to be creative and innovative which serve as the basis, instructions and resources to find opportunities for success. In this part, there are several examples of Indonesians and foreigner successful entrepreneur’s around the world.
1. Tyler McIntyre: Lucid
During his freshmen days, Tyler got himself an iPhone, and to his disappointment he couldn’t find anyone who provided the technology to implement Blackberry messenger on the iPhone. He therefore, decided to come up with a solution himself. “I really like technology and computers, and I kind of have a knack for how they connect and flow together.” he says. He graduated from high school a year early to pursue technology courses, by 16 he was a certified Microsoft professional. At 19, he launched Lucid, a messaging system that bridges Android phones, iPhones, iPods, and Blackberries together.
2. Soedono Salim
Soedono Salim or Liem Sioe Liong is one of the successful entrepreneurs in Indonesia. He was born on July 19, 1916 in China. He is an establisher of Salims’group in Indonesia such as Indofood, Indomobil, Indocement, Bank Central Asia, Indomaret, Indomarco, PT Mega, Windu Kencana Bank, factory of Hanurata, and factory of Waringin Kencana. The histories of Soedono Salim were begun when he moved to Indonesia on 1939. In Kudus he is become a clove provider for cigarette industrial. On 1969, Soedono Salim with his partners Sudikatmono, Djuhar Sutanto, and Ibrahim Risjad was built a CV Waringin Kentjana. Besides that, they are also built PT Bogasari, PT Indocement Tunggal Perkasa, PT Metropolitan Development, and Bank Central Asia.
3. Anthony Francis Fernandes
Anthony Francis Fernandez or Tony Fernandez is the establisher of Tune Air Sdn Bhd and an entrepreneur on Air Asia Lines. Tony Fernandez was born in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 1964. The career of Tony Fernandez was begun when he always followed his mother to sell of Tupperware to the consumers. After finish his study in London, he was worked in the Virgin Airlines as auditor and then moved to Richard Bronson Company as finances beadle. When he was 27 years old, he was going back to Malaysia and worked in the Warner Music Malaysia Sdn Bhd as director manager. Whereas, he was leave his job in the Warner Music Malaysia Sdn Bhd to build a flight company. On 2001, he bought a flight company from DRB-Hicom Company namely AirAsia. Now, his business was development experience rapidly. According to Tony Fernandez histories, the positive impacts that we can takes that is we should to loyal with our country, we never afraid to take risk in business, and believe our business will be success.
4. Juliette Brindak: MissO & Friends
When Juliette was 10, instead of selling lemonade like every other regular child of her age, with the help of her parents she created a website called MissO & Friends, by the time she was 16 she was already an author, and by 19 she was the owner of a $15 million worth website. A website for teenage girls and by teenage girls. A place where young girls play quizzes, dressing up games, find music of their choice, get the latest scoop and the ever-so-popular message board where most of the discussions are revolve around one missing element in the site – boys. “We are by girls for girls, so we always ask them what they want, and they tell us.” she says, further adding, “We’re definitely a virtual company. We really say there are no politics within the company, and there’s not that water cooler phenomenon, because we are virtual.” It is important to note, the Juliette has been smart enough to implement ‘Children’s Online Privacy Act’ on her website, which makes the message board completely adult moderated.
Examples of successful entrepreneur on the top, they can become a successful entrepreneur because they are having attitude, characteristics, and behavior of entrepreneur success like creative, innovation, doing new thing, etc.
G. The View of Islamic About Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship as a very important aspect in today’s management area defined as: a person of very high aptitude who pioneers change, possessing characteristics found in only a very small fraction of the population in commercial view. It is sure to be understood that Islam is not only a form of worship or religion duties. Islam is a complete way of life (al-Din) for those of us who acknowledge the oneness of Allah and the dignity of Muhammad S.A.W as His final and greatest Messenger. Islam is a complete way of life. There is no separation between business and religion. Islam has its own entrepreneurship culture and guiding principles based on the Al-Quran and Al-Hadith to guide business operation. The famous hadith by Imam al-Ghazali “Encouraged upon you is trade, for in it is nine out of 10 parts of your sustenance”, that Islam acknowledged that the best way to get wealth and sustenance was trade. Therefore, Islam never banned or prevents people who want to become entrepreneurs even Al-Quran and Al-Hadith advocated to become entrepreneurs.
H. My Ambition Entrepreneur in the Next Ten Years
As an entrepreneur my ambitions In the Next Ten Years become businesswoman, I want build big shop in my hometown because I would want people in my hometown feel happy, would want the people to come in my home town and people in my hometown do not need go to town for buy clothes and other equipment. Then, if I already have a lot of money, I would buy an aircraft. So, that I want to bring my mom, my dad and my family around the world

CONCLUSION
Entrepreneurship is a process of doing new thing, thinking new thing with creative thinking and innovation. It requires an application of energy and passion towards the creation and implementation of new ideas and creative solutions. Life entrepreneurs are ordinary people who integrate their life, work, and purpose through distinctively entrepreneurial behavior—and, in so doing, create extraordinary lives of significance. Many people in this world who managed to entrepreneurship, and they become successfully people. The last, Islam never banned or prevents people who want to become entrepreneurs even Al-Quran and Al-Hadith advocated to become entrepreneurs.

REFERENCES

Suryana(2003).Kewirausahaan:Pedoman Praktis, Kiat dan Peroses Menuju Sukses. Jakarta:Salemba Empat.
Heinecke William E & Jonathan Marsh(2003).The Entrepreneur.Jakarta: PT Rajagrafindo persada.
Suryana(2001).Kewirausahaan.Jakarta:Salemba Empat
Addi, Isma(2008). The Entrepreneurship:blogspot.com: November 15,2008. from
http://entrepreneurship-isma.blogspot.com/2008_11_01_archive.html
Bernier, Maxime(2009). Entrepreneurship.Appril 10,2009. From
http://www.maximebernier.com/en/2009/04/entrepreneurship/
Pankaj,Bhrigu(2012) The Most Successful Entrepreneurs.February 07,2012 from
http://www.forbes.com/sites/bhrigupankajprashar/2012/07/02/7 -entrepreneurs-kick-axx/
Ulwiyah,Nur(2012). Prosiding Seminas Competitive Advantage.(2012)
http://www.journal.unipdu.ac.id/index.php/seminas/article/view/186

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entrepreneur
http://www.answers.com/topic/entrepreneurship-1
http://www.entre-ed.org/Standards_Toolkit/importance.htm
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/entrepreneurship.html
http://www.pdfonline.com/pdf-to-word-converter/
http://www.blurtit.com/q958195.html
http://www.applied-islamicfinance.com/sp_entrepreneurship_2.htm

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