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                                  Elementary Students                                                           METHODOLOGY
There are many kind of methodology in teaching of language. The first is four methods (community language learning, the silent way, Suggestopaedia and (TPR) total physical response), audio-lingual method, PPP (practice, presentation and production), and active learning methodology, humanistic teaching, lexical approach, communicative approach and the last is task-based learning.
The Four Methods
1. Community Language Learning Method (CLL)
Community Language Learning (CLL) is one of the methods in learning and developed by Charles Curran in 1970. The definition of community language learning is an approach in which students work together to develop what aspects of language they would like to learn. Community Language Learning represents the use of Counseling-Learning theory to teach languages. Counseling is one person giving advice, assistance and support to another person who has a problem or is in some way in need. The characteristic of Community Language Learning draws on the counseling metaphor to redefine the roles of the teacher as counselor and the learners as clients in the language classroom.
Theory and Technique in CLL
According to La Forge ‘’Language is people; language is persons in contact; language is persons in response”. CLL interactions are of two distinct and fundamental kinds: interactions between learners and interactions between learners and teachers (knower). Interactions between learners are unpredictable in content but typically involve exchanges of affect. Learner exchanges deepen in intimacy, as the class becomes a community of learners. The desire to be part of this growing intimacy pushes learners to keep pace with the learning of their peers.
Interaction between learners and teachers is initially dependent. The learner tells the teacher what he or she wishes to say in the target language, and the teacher tells the learner how to say it. Gradually, the learner becomes able to speak a word or phrase directly in the foreign language, without translation. More and more direct communication can take place with the counselor providing less and less direct translation and information, until after many sessions, or many years, the learner achieves fluency in the spoken language. The learner has at that point become independent.
Interactions between learner and teacher compared to the stages of human growth and undergo several stages with typical characteristics at each stage: the first dependent: The learner is like an infant, completely dependent on the knower for linguistic content. The learner repeats utterances made by the teacher in the target language and overhears the interchanges between other learners and knower’s. Second, self-assertive: Learners begin to establish their own self-affirmation and independence by using simple expressions and phrases they have previously heard. Third, resentful and indignant: Learners begin to understand others directly in the target language. Learners will resent uninvited assistance provided by the knower at this stage. The four is tolerant: The learner functions independently, although his knowledge of the foreign language is still rudimentary. The learner becomes secure enough to take criticism from the teacher. He must learn how to elicit from the knower the advanced level of linguistic knowledge the knower possesses. and the last is independent: Learners refine their understanding of register as well as grammatical correct language use. They may become counselors to less advanced students while profiting from contact with their original knower.
A typical classroom described as such: groups of learners sit in a circle, while the teacher stands outside the circle, answering students’ questions and translating the native language into the target language. A student whispers a message in his mother tongue. The teacher then translates it into the target language. The student repeats the message in the foreign language with the help of the teacher. While some of the students convey messages, others are encouraged to overhear these messages. Finally, real communication begins to occur among the learners.
CLL combines innovative learning tasks and activities with conventional ones. The types of learning and teaching activities include Translation, Group work, Recording, Transcription, Analysis, Reflection and observation, listening, and the last is free conversation.
The strength and the weakness of CLL, Strengths: the student’s are motivated to take a part in the class activity, improve their capability, ideas and their knowledge. The last is the responsibility, cooperate and tolerance between the student’s is good. The weakness is the method of community language learning is some time the passive student’s still can develop their ideas or opinion if their teacher or their active friend’s do not motivated them in leaching and learning process.
2. The Silent Way
Silent Way is an approach to teaching foreign languages developed by Dr. Caleb Gattegno, based on a theory of learning and teaching rather than on a theory of language. it derives its name from the fact that the teacher conducting a Silent Way class is silent for most of the time. This silence is mean to give the students the opportunity to exploit precious classroom time. The teacher’s presence in the classroom is limited to providing a model of the language that the students are going to work on. The basic assumption is that the students will bring their potential and their previous experience of learning their mother tongue to the foreign language classroom.
The general objective of the Silent Way is to give beginning level student’s oral and aural facility in basic elements of the target language. The general goal set for language learning is near-native fluency in the target language, and correct pronunciation and mastery of the prosodic elements of the target language emphasized. An immediate objective is to provide the learner with a basic practical knowledge of the grammar of the language. This forms the basis for independent learning on the learner’s part. Gattegno discusses the following kinds of objectives as appropriate for a language course at an elementary level (Gattegno 1972: 81-83). Students must be correctly and easily answer questions.
The Disadvantages and the Advantages of Silent Way
Disadvantages: the Silent Way criticized of being a harsh method. The learner works in isolation and communication is lacking badly in a Silent Way classroom. Moreover, with minimum help on the part of the teacher, the Silent Way method may put the learning itself at stake. Then, the material (the rods and the charts) used in this method will certainly fail to introduce all aspects of language. Advantages: The use of the Silent Way enables a very high degree of interaction as well between the teacher and the students as between the students themselves and additionally raises the participation of the students in class. The students/learners cooperate and help each other in class and in this way the social aspect of learning is supported. For the students it is beneficial that they are expected to develop a certain degree of self-awareness and that they can discover the language on their own via testing things and making use of the materials provided by the teacher. After that, learning through problem solving looks attractive especially because it fosters creativity, discovery, and increase in intelligent potency and long-term memory. Thereafter, the indirect role of the teacher highlights the importance and the centrality of the learner who is responsible in figuring out and testing the hypotheses about how language works.
Implementations in class of using silent way, the teacher give the new material or task to their student’s and the learner’s can do it by small discussion or searching the resource in the internet or in the library. Additionally, they also doing the experiment based on teory.
3. Suggestopaedia
Suggestopaedia is a teaching method, which focuses on how to deal with the relationship between mental potential and learning ability and it is very appropriate to use in teaching speaking for young language learners (Xue, 2005). Suggestopaedia was developing by a Bulgarian psychologist and educator, George Lazanov in 1975. Suggestopaedia is an effective comprehensible input based method with a combination of desuggestion and suggestion to achieve super learning. A method desuggests the limitations that students have to help them to believe that they could be successful in learning, so it can cultivate students’ motivation in learning. Then, concerns to students’ learning style because there are visual display, audio, and physical involvements during learning process. Moreover, it involves emotional meaning in given the lesson which help students’ better in memorizing. The features of Suggestopaedia, for the first, the teacher involve the students in teaching and learning process. Second, students are motivated to improve their skill and the last is students take a part in higher-order thinking (analysis, synthesis, evaluation).
Characteristics of Suggestopaedia: stimulates the whole person, undoes blocks, goes rapidly forward , gives creative solutions , encourages relaxation, strengthens self-image , talks to all the senses , optimizes learning , propagates talent , enhances learning , dramatizes material , includes pictures, music and movement and the last is addresses the whole person.
Classroom Implementation: Classroom set-up: Emphasis placed on creating a physical environment that does not “feel” like a normal classroom, and makes the students feel as relaxed and comfortable as possible. It’s accomplished in the classroom by the use of dim lights, soft music, cushioned armchairs, and walls decorated with scenes from a country where the target language is spoken.
Strengths and weakness of Suggestopaedia
Strengths: If we can balance our brain, we can maximalist our capability to get the best result in learning process. Motivation and self-esteem are increased and encouraged, music helps long-term memorization, games, free activities help memorizing, and the critical approach and open discussion favor the analytical thought
The weakness of Suggestopaedia, environmental limitations;(˙unavailable of music and comfortable chair ˙no advanced comprehension technique ), ignores mechanical activities in internalizing the grammar rules or the vocabulary items, the techniques may not work well in all the learners and cultures(cognitive differences of the people) and their grammar is not good because they ignore the rules.
4. Total Physical Response (TPR)
Total Physical Response (TPR) developed by James Asher (1982) Learning another language through actions. The total physical response (TPR) is one of the teaching strategies in which teacher gives a series of commands and students will respond in accordance with the commands given. This strategy can be used to teach second or foreign language students at all ages and it is applied when students remain silent until they are ready to speak. Before giving the commands, the teacher will first demonstrate to students how they should react physically to the command. For example, when the teacher gives command, “Open the door”, she will show the appropriate behavior and make the action very clear to students. Once students acquired basic commands, the teacher will provide them double commands, such as “Walk to the door and open it.” The commands can given to the individuals, small groups or the whole class; however, in order to lower students’ anxiety, the teacher prefers to give the commands to the whole class at the very beginning rather than single out individuals.
The students gradually will gain the requests after doing them several times and become more proficient. When they are ready, they will move into volunteering themselves and give commands to their friends. At that time, they come to the next phase, called the production phase. In fact, TPR utilizes implicit learning and gives students opportunity to become more proficient in their target language because it allows them to listen first and speak when they are ready and top of that, the students will physically be involved in that language.
Advantages and disadvantages of TPR
Advantages: It is fun and easy, It does not require a great deal of preparation on the part of the teacher, It is a good tool for learning vocabulary, Class size does not need to be a problem, There is no age barrier.
Disadvantages: It is not a very creative method. Students are not given the opportunity to express their own views and thoughts in a creative way; it’s easy to overuse TPR. It is limited, since not everything can explain with this method. It’s combined with other approaches.
Critique of TPR: The use of Total Physical Response (TPR), in the classroom could benefit all students, not just English Language Learners (although it is certainly a method that should be considered when planning for ELLs). Since TPR can be “an engaging, lively addition to classroom techniques,” it can draw students into learning and perhaps increase motivation and participation (Diaz-Rico & Weed, 2010, p. 73). Since TPR can be used with a group of students, or the whole class, it can help lower their affective filters by relieving pressure to perform perfectly. It also provides “concrete, hands-on,” activity that is “associated with early stages of second-language learning, and is recommended by Krashen and Terrell (1983) for promoting comprehension in a low-anxiety environment” (Diaz-Rico & Weed, 2010). Teachers should be aware of pushing students too soon into performing TPR activities on their own (verses with a group or the whole class). Rushing a student into a singled out position could raise anxiety and discourage the student from taking the necessary risks to develop the language.
5. Audio-lingual method
The Audio-lingual method is the product of historical circumstances. It’s also called Oral method or the Army method. This method of Language learning is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign language. It’s based on the principles of behavior psychology and on behavior ideology. This approach to language learning was similar to another, earlier method called the Direct Method that advised that students taught a language directly, without using the students´ native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language. However, the Audio-lingual method did not focus on teaching vocabulary.
New material presented in the form of a dialogue. This means that the instructor would present the correct model of a sentence and the students would have to repeat it. The teacher would then continue by presenting new words for the students to sample in the same structure. In audio-legalism, there is no explicit grammar instruction- everything is simply memorize in form. The idea is for the students to practice the particular construct until they can use it spontaneously.
Methodology in audio-lingual: 1. typically, the audio-lingual method includes drills and pattern repetition. There are four parts to this method. 2. Repetition – the students repeat what the teacher says. Example: Teacher – “I walk to school”. Students “I walk to school”.3. Inflection – the teacher says a word, the students say another form of one of the words back to the teacher. Example: Teacher – “I walk to school”. Students – “I walked to school”. 4. Replacement – the teacher says a sentence and the students replace on of the words for a different word. Example: Teacher – “I walk to school”. Students – “I run to school”. 5. Restatement – the teacher says a sentence and the students rephrase the sentence. Example: Teacher – “Tell me to walk to school”. Students – “Walk to school”.
This method can be appropriate in certain learning contexts, as in situations where one of the main objectives of learning English is to take and achieve immediate and successful results in a variety of tests, so the method has its merits. which the practice involved in the Audio-lingual Method can be applied to approach the objectives of those people who want to learn the deep structure of a language, as Audio-lingual-based drills can be adapted and used in combination with an appropriate range of other activities, and effective error correction techniques, to create a more independent experimentation and application.
6. PPP (practice, presentation and production)
PPP is a successful one and is widely used throughout the world by many English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher. Every PPP lesson has a language aim, which students should fulfill by the end of it. It is a modern equivalent of the audio-lingual’s method, which dates back to the 1940s. Not only the PPP be applied to teach grammar items, but it can also be used to teach functions, vocabulary and even pronunciation. In a PPP lesson, there are three stages: first, the teacher presents the target language; then, students practice the new language items; and finally they use their own ideas to talk about themselves.
The presentation phase usually consists of two steps: an introductory activity such as a warm-up or a lead-in, which is an activity, intended to raise students’ interest in the topic; and an introduction of the target language. For example, if the aim of the lesson is to teach the present continuous for arrangements, the lesson could start with a warmer in which the teacher elicits some activities the students enjoy doing at the weekends. Then, the suggested ideas written on the board and the teacher helps with any pronunciation problems there might be during this step. After that, the teacher could write the students’ ideas on the board to present the present continuous. The teacher chooses some of them and talks about his/her own arrangements for the weekend. While the teacher presents the new language items, the students just listen. The present continuous being present in a contextualized way, which is very important at the presentation stage of the lesson.
In the practice stage, the focus is on form. The teacher provides opportunities for students to practice the learnt items in a controlled way. This is a chance for the students to use what they have learnt without making mistakes, so it is of the utmost importance that at this moment of the lesson, the students monitored and all mistakes corrected. A common controlled activity is a choral drill, in which students repeat the sentences on the board, using the present continuous. Then, the teacher explains the grammatical use of the new language referring the present continuous to its function: making future arrangements. After that, he/she asks the students conceptual questions, that is, questions to check whether they have understood the use of the language. For instance, ‘What am I going to do on Saturday morning? How about on Saturday evening?’ etc. Students can then carry out another restricted activity such as a written gap filling in which they fill in the gaps of sentences with the present continuous form of the verbs in brackets. It is necessary though, that student have the chance to practice, through restricted exercises, at the beginning and at the end of the practice stage.
Once students have practiced the present continuous, now it is time for them to use what they have taught in real-situation like activities. The production stage focuses on fluency and provides students with an opportunity to personalize the language learnt by doing less controlled tasks, that is, by using their own ideas. A good production exercise for the described lesson is the teacher gives a copy of a blank weekly schedule for students to complete with some arrangements and activities of their own. Then, students work in pairs, asking about what they are doing at specific days and times of the week and which arrangements they have. To make this freer practice more interesting and interactive, the students could try to find out each other’s free time in their timetables and arrange between themselves. It is extremely important that students use what they have learnt in very communicative tasks.
According to Jeremy Harmer (2009), the PPP is a method that is widely used in teaching simple language at lower levels. Furthermore, many modern course books contain examples of PPP lessons that have retained elements of structural-situation methodology and audio-lingual’s. Harmer adds that there is a consensus that PPP is just one method among many, not taking into consideration other ways of learning. It is very learning-based and takes little account of students’ acquisition abilities. However, I strongly believe that once the lesson is finished and your students have actually achieved its aim, having been able to produce language in an meaningful way, it means that the method applied was successful and effective, and only then will the teacher feel that learning has really taken place.
7. Humanistic Teaching
Humanistic teaching is method of teaching activity and was develop by Gertrude Moscowitz. Humanism gives importance to the inner feelings, thoughts and emotions of the human being; it focuses on the development of the self-concept of the student. Feeling good about oneself is the first and foremost factor. Maslow’s hierarchy of “Self-actualization” deals with all the levels of human emotions and needs. The individual is giving a lot of importance. The humanistic approach is a method of teaching language that lays great stress on humanism and considers it the essential element in the process of teaching. Some of the important principles in the humanistic approach are the development of human values, increase in self-awareness, sensitivity towards emotions and feelings and active student participation in the process of learning.
There are some affective factors in the language learning process are divided into two types: individual factors that consist of self-esteem, inhibition, motivation, anxiety and extroversion-introversion; and rational factors that contain cross-cultural processes, empathy and classroom transaction. The humanistic approach is a learner-centered approach where each and everything is keeping the learner in mind. Humanists discourage both reward and punishment as the student will get used to praise and will simply work to be appreciating rather than making the effort because it is truly required. The characteristic of humanistic teaching: Use procedure and activity to make students feel good when remember and practice grammar and concern about affective variable
Strengths of humanistic teaching are students enjoy the practice in the class because the topic is about their personal story, real life, and feelings and Students happy at the same time with practice grammar. Then the weakness of humanistic teaching: It is not all culture deserve about telling personal story. It might be cannot work if teacher and students uncomfortable to work in the real lives and feelings.
Critics: avoid the monotone situation, but create the comfortable condition and various stories, so they will be enjoy in learning process. Classroom implementation: Students make a sentence with was or were and related with their favorite things. Students read a pair of passive and active sentence then underline sentence that best fits with their personal story.
8. Lexical Approach
The principles of the Lexical Approach have been around since Michael Lewis published ‘The Lexical Approach’. Lewis (1993) argues the Lexical Approach is not a break with the Communicative Approach, but a development of it. He makes a helpful summary of the findings from first language acquisition research that he thinks are relevant to second language acquisition: the first, Language not learnt by learning individual sounds and structures and then combining them, but by an increasing ability to break down wholes into parts. Then, grammar acquired by a process of observation, hypothesis and experiment. Afterwards, we can use whole phrases without understanding their constituent parts. The last is Acquisition accelerated by contact with a sympathetic interlocutor with a higher level of competence in the target language.
Schmitt (2000) makes a significant contribution to a learning theory for the Lexical Approach by adding that ‘the mind stores and processes these [lexical] chunks as individual wholes.’ The mind is able to store large amounts of information in long-term memory but its short-term capacity is much more limited, when producing language in speech for example, so it is much more efficient for the brain to recall a chunk of language as if it were one piece of information. ‘Figment of his imagination’ therefore, recalled as one piece of information rather than four separate words. It is beneficial for language learners to gain exposure to lexical chunks and to gain experience in analyzing those chunks in order to begin the process of internalization. We believe, like Lewis, that encouraging learners to notice language, specifically lexical chunks and collocations, is central to any methodology connected to a lexical view of language.
Tomlinson (2003) sums up the principles, objectives and procedures of a language awareness approach as paying deliberate attention to features of language in use can help learners to notice the gap between their own performance in the target language and the performance of proficient users of the language. Moreover, noticing can give salience to a feature, so that it becomes more noticeable in future input, so contributing to the learner’s psychological readiness to acquire that feature. Furthermore, the main objective is to help learners to notice for themselves how language is use typically so that they will note the gaps and ‘achieve learning readiness’ [as well as independence from the teacher and teaching materials]. In addition, the first procedures are usually experiential rather than analytical and aim to involve the learners in affective interaction with a potentially engaging text. [That is, learners read a text, and respond with their own views and opinions before studying the language in the text or answering comprehension type questions. The last is learners are later encouraged to focus on a particular feature of the text, identify instances of the feature, make discoveries and articulate generalizations about its use.’
9. Active Learning
The term of active learning is used to describe a range of pedagogic approaches from the simple asking of questions in a class through highly structured problem based learning exercises and simulations to practical experiential learning in the community outside the educational institution. It might be helpful briefly discuss some of these approaches before looking in more depth at the theoretical justification for active learning.
Types of active learning
a. Collaborative and Co-operative learning
Collaborative learning is a method of teaching and learning in which student’s team together to explore a significant question or create a meaningful project. Group of students discussing a lecture or students from different schools working together over the Internet on a shared assignment are both examples of collaborative learning.
b. Problem-based learning
Problem-based learning (PBL) is another generic term that includes Inquiry- based learning (IBL), Enquiry-based learning (EBL) and Problem-solving learning (PSL). One important aspect of PBL is the changed role of the teacher. Rather than having the traditional role of the holder of the knowledge whose task is to transmit it to the learners, the role becomes more of a facilitator or coach whose main responsibility is to listen to the learners so that he or she can guide them in their enquiries. This requires a major re-orientation for staffs that have been accustomed to a traditional didactic approach and can be a significant obstacle in the adoption of this methodology. Then evidence for active learning and the last is work-Based Learning
Active learning is a term that encompasses a wide range of pedagogic approaches that used in both schools and universities over a long period. There is evidence that where we wish to engage students to encourage their active engagement in a life-long learning process that promotes reflection and the use of higher order academic skills such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation, this is the path to follow.
10. Communicative approach
The Communicative Approach is an approach to language learning that emerged in the 1970s and 1980s develop by American psychiatrist and psychoanalysts Robert Langs, as the emphasis shifted from knowledge of language forms, meanings and functions to the use of language, the ability to apply the knowledge acquired. Communicative approach referred to as communicative language learning. Communicative language learning, it is an approach to the teaching of second language and foreign language. This approaches that emphasize of interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning language (Richards, 1986). In here, the written will explain about the principles, characteristic, advantages and disadvantages of communicative approach.
The principles of communicative approach are: Learners learn through using it to communicate, Authentic and meaningful communication should be the goal of classroom activities, Fluency is an important dimension of communication, Communication involves the integration of different language skills and Learning is a process of creative construction and involves trial and error. The characteristic of communicative approach likes have the Variation of activities and strategies, Material sequencing is determined by content, meaning and function, Communicative competence is the goal of instruction, Communicative approach stimulate ‘real life’ communicative experiences, The learning task is content-based, theme-based, project-based or some combination, Analysis of language is done in specific contexts, The focus is not upon listening and speaking but upon using language to communicate and to learn, Listening and speaking skills as vehicles for learning across all subjects areas.
The last is advantages and disadvantages this communicative approach. The Advantages: the first, Confident because teachers encourage students to express a lot. Errors considered natural. The teacher will not correct every sentence immediately. It will not hurt the self-esteem of students. Second is useful because the curriculums of communicative approach usually have clear and specific main topics (situations) to cultivate learners’ communicative and social competence. The third is harmonious; the class will be harmonious through role-play games, interview, and other interaction activities by the teacher. Disadvantages: limited instructional hours role-play games and simulations involve a lot of conversations and discussions. Thus it may not be very suitable for a large class. The teacher has to spend a lot of time on interactions of students and he is not able to predict the process in the class. Second is losing control, since the activities require the full participation of the students and minimum participation from the teacher, the teacher may fear that he may lose control of the class. The third is not suitable for all levels because low proficiency students who do not have the necessary communicative competence to carry out the activity. Communicative activities would be more suitable for intermediate and advanced learners. The last is Activities are difficult to monitor. With so much activity both physical and verbal going on, it is sometimes difficult for the teacher to monitor a student’s performance. There is the fear among teachers that the students are having too much fun and that no learning is taking place.
11. Task-Based Learning (TBL)
The approach of task-based (TBL), the focus is on bringing ‘real-world’ contexts into the classroom. There is an emphasis on using language as a tool for completing tasks rather than as a subject in its own right. Tasks are devised which require learners to use certain key structures in order to finish the task – language is seen as the means rather than the end. Importantly, there is considerable emphasis on ‘focus on form (Doughty and Williams, 1998). In other words, while language seen as the means to an end, it is still the focus of attention in the final stage of a three-part process. According to Willis (2001), TBL views language as the ‘driving force in language learning’. Put differently, while the learning process revolves around tasks, it is the language remains as the focal point of study.
This method has the advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of task-based learning are first, useful for move the focus of the learning process from the teacher to the students. Secondly, this method gives the students a different way of understanding language. Thirdly, bring the teaching from the abstract knowledge to real situation or real world application. Then, helpful in meeting the immediate needs of the learners and provides a framework for creating classes, interesting and able to address to the students needs.

Reference:

Harmer, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching. 3rd Edition. pg. 78-91.
Sidhakarya, I. W. (2002, march). The Silent Way. The Search of a Method and Curriculum .
timmis, C. a. ( 2003, July 1 ). Lexical Approach. (T. Editor, Ed.) teaching english .
Xue,Jinxiang.(2005).Critical Review on Suggestopedia.Division of Language and Communication. 20 Jan.2009 from http://www.eslkidstuff.com/Articles.htm.
Brown, H. D. (1987). Principles of language learning and teaching. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, : Prentice Hall.
Huitt, W. (2009). Humanism and open education. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from
http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/affect/humed.html.
Baigent, Maggie (1999). Teaching in chunks: integrating a lexical approach. Modern English Teacher :51-54.
Task Based Learning. (t.thn.). Dipetik mei 23, 2013, dari web site: http://www2.uni-wuppertal.de/FB4/anglistik/multhaup/methods_elt/8_task_based_learning.htm.
Diaz-Rico, L.T. & Weed, K. Z. (2010). The Cross-Cultural Language, and Academic Development Handbook, Fourth Edition.
Communities and Local Government (2006) Take part : the national framework for active learning for active citizenship, London: Communities and Local Government (available at http://www.takepart.org/framework-for-active-learning).

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